Grip: Research unit on children's psychosocial maladjustment
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The Québec Study of Newborn Twins (QSNT)
Context

Childhood development is partially influenced by environmental factors and by biological factors. The QSNT gathers data on childhood develpment in such a way as to distinguish between the two categories of influence as well as to identify future interactions between environmental and biological influences. Children are met with at 5, 18, and 30 months of age and evaluated with a series of behavioural and physiological measures; parents are also evaluated with the help of measures of parental behaviour and attitude.

(The QSNT is principally funded by the National Program for the Research of Health Development, the Health Research Fund of Québec and the Québec Council for Social Research.)

Objectives

-To identify the environmental factors that influence the different aspects of children's behaviour.

-To study the evolution over time of biological and social aspects of childhood development.

-To understand the origin of the diffences and similarities that exist between children born at the same time and who share the same milieu.

Subjects (sample)

650 pairs of twins, born in the greater Montréal area between the 1st of April 1995 and the 31st of December 1998, and their parents.

 Publications  Peer-reviewed articles

Casey, K. F., Lévesque, M. L., Szyf, M., Ismaylova, E., Verner, M.-P., Suderman, M., Vitaro, F., Brendgen, M., Dionne, G., Boivin, M., Tremblay, R. E. & Booij, L. (2017). Birth weight discordance, DNA methylation, and cortical morphology of adolescent monozygotic twins. Human Brain Mapping, 38(4), 2037-2050.

Schumann, L., Boivin, M., Paquin, S., Lacourse, É., Brendgen, M., Vitaro, F., Dionne, G., Tremblay, R. E. & Booij, L. (2017). Persistence and innovation effects in genetic and environmental factors in negative emotionality during infancy: A twin study. PLoS One, 12(4), e0176601-.

Bekkhus, M., Brendgen, M., Czajkowski, N. O., Vitaro, F., Dionne, G. & Boivin, M. (2016). Associations between sibling relationship quality and friendship quality in early adolescence: Looking at the case of twins. Twin Research and Human Genetics, 19(2), 125-135.

Brendgen, M., Ouellet-Morin, I., Lupien, S. J., Vitaro, F., Dionne, G. & Boivin, M. (2016). Environmental influence of problematic social relationships on adolescents’ daily cortisol secretion: A Monozygotic (MZ) Twin Difference Study. Psychological Medicine, 47(3), 460-470.

Dubois, L., Diasparra, M., Bogl, L.-H., Fontaine-Bisson, B., Bédard, B., Tremblay, R. E., Kaprio, J. & Boivin, M. (2016). Dietary intake at 9 years and subsequent Body Mass Index in adolescent boys and girls: A study of monozygotic twin pairs. Twin Research and Human Genetics, 19(1), 47-59.

Girard, S., Perreault, L. P., Legault, M. A., Barhdadi, A., Bourassa, C., Spiegelman, D., Laporte, A., Henrion, E., Diallo, O., Ambalavanan, A., Brendgen, M., Vitaro, F., Noreau, A., Dionne, G., Tremblay, R. E., Dion, P. A., Boivin, M., Dubé, M. P. & Rouleau, G. A. (2016). Paternal age explains a major portion of de novo germline mutation rate variability in healthy individuals. PLoS One, 11(10), e0164212-.

Guimond, F.-A., Laursen, B., Vitaro, F., Brendgen, M., Dionne, G. & Boivin, M. (2016). Associations between mother-child relationship quality and adolescent adjustment: Using a genetically controlled design to determine the direction and magnitude of effects. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 40(3), 196-204.

Jelenkovic, A., ..., Boivin, M., Brendgen, M., Dionne, G., Vitaro, F., ... & Silventoinen, K. (2016). Genetic and environmental influences on height from infancy to early adulthood: An individual-based pooled analysis of 45 twin cohorts. Scientific Reports, 6(28496), 1-13.

Laursen, B., Hartl, A., Vitaro, F., Brendgen, M., Dionne, G. & Boivin, M. (2016). The spread of substance use and delinquency between adolescent twins. Developmental Psychology, 53(2), 329-339.

Ouellet-Morin, I., Brendgen, M., Girard, A., Lupien, S. J., Dionne, G., Vitaro, F. & Boivin, M. (2016). Evidence of a unique and common genetic etiology between the CAR and the remaining part of the diurnal cycle: A study of 14 year-old twins. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 66, 91-100.

Brendgen, M., Girard, A., Vitaro, F., Dionne, G. & Boivin, M. (2015). Gene-environment correlation linking aggression and peer victimization: Do classroom behavioral norms matter? Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 43(1), 19-31.

Dickson, D. J., Richmond, A. D., Brendgen, M., Vitaro, F., Laursen, B., Dionne, G. & Boivin, M. (2015). Aggression can be contagious: Longitudinal associations between proactive aggression and reactive aggression among young twins. Aggressive Behavior, 41(5), 455-466.

Dirghangi, S., Kahn, G., Laursen, B., Brendgen, M., Vitaro, F., Dionne, G. & Boivin, M. (2015). Co-rumination cultivates anxiety: A genetically informed study of friend influence during early adolescence. Developmental Psychology, 51(4), 564-571.

Kovas, Y., Garon-Carrier, G., Boivin, M., Petrill, S. A., Plomin, R., Malykh, S. B., Spinath, F., Murayama, K., Ando, J., Bogdanova, O. Y., Brendgen, M., Dionne, G., Forget-Dubois, N., Galajinsky, E. V., Gottschling, J., Guay, F., Lemelin, J.-P., Logan, J. A. R., Yamagata, S., Shikishima, C., Spinath, B., Thompson, L. A., Tikhomirova, T. N., Tosto, M. G., Tremblay, R. E. & Vitaro, F. (2015). Why children differ in motivation to learn: Insights from over 13,000 twins from 6 countries. Personality and Individual Differences, 80, 51-63.

Lévesque, M. L., Fahim, C., Ismaylova, E., Verner, M.-P., Casey, K. F., Vitaro, F., Brendgen, M., Dionne, G., Boivin, M., Tremblay, R. E. & Booij, L. (2015). The impact of the in utero and early postnatal environments on grey and white matter volume: A study with adolescent monozygotic twins. Developmental Neuroscience, 37(6), 489-496.

Plourde, V., Boivin, M., Forget-Dubois, N., Brendgen, M., Vitaro, F., Marino, C., Tremblay, R. E. & Dionne, G. (2015). Phenotypic and genetic associations between reading comprehension, decoding skills, and ADHD dimensions: Evidence from two population-based studies. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 56(10), 1074-1082.

Vitaro, F., Brendgen, M., Girard, A., Boivin, M., Dionne, G. & Tremblay, R. E. (2015). The expression of genetic risk for aggressive and non-aggressive antisocial behavior is moderated by peer group norms. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 44(7), 1379-1395.

Vitaro, F., Hartl, A. C., Laursen, B., Brendgen, M., Dionne, G. & Boivin, M. (2015). Reciprocal longitudinal associations between adolescent twin gambling and delinquency. Journal of Gambling Studies, 31(4), 1449-1461.

Brendgen, M., Girard, A., Vitaro, F., Dionne, G., Tremblay, R. E., Pérusse, D. & Boivin, M. (2014). Gene-environment processes linking peer victimization and physical health problems: A longitudinal twin study. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 39(1), 96-108.

Guimond, F.-A., Brendgen, M., Vitaro, F., Forget-Dubois, N., Dionne, G., Tremblay, R. E. & Boivin, M. (2014). Gene-environment interplay in the link of friends' and nonfriends' behaviors with children's social reticence in a competitive situation. Developmental Psychology, 50(3), 956-967.

Lacourse, É., Boivin, M., Brendgen, M., Petitclerc, A., Girard, A., Vitaro, F., Paquin, S., Ouellet-Morin, I., Dionne, G. & Tremblay, R. E. (2014). A longitudinal twin study of physical aggression during early childhood: Evidence for a developmentally dynamic genome. Psychological Medicine, 44(12), 2617-2627.

Lévesque, M. L., Casey, K. F., Szyf, M., Ismaylova, E., Ly, V., Verner, M.-P., Suderman, M., Brendgen, M., Vitaro, F., Dionne, G., Boivin, M., Tremblay, R. E. & Booij, L. (2014). Genome-wide DNA methylation variability in adolescent monozygotic twins followed since birth. Epigenetics, 9(10), 1410-1421.

Plourde, V., Boivin, M., Brendgen, M., Vitaro, F. & Dionne, G. (2014). B-27 Adolescent Readers: Neuropsychological Profile and ADHD Symptoms in Childhood. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 29(6), 546-.

Poliakova, N., Dionne, G., Dubreuil, É., Ditto, B., Pihl, R. O., Pérusse, D., Tremblay, R. E. & Boivin, M. (2014). A methodological comparison of the Porges algorithm, fast Fourier transform, and autoregressive spectral analysis for the estimation of heart rate variability in 5-month-old infants. Psychophysiology, 51(6), 579-583.

Boivin, M., Brendgen, M., Dionne, G., Dubois, L., Pérusse, D., Robaey, P., Tremblay, R. E. & Vitaro, F. (2013). The Quebec Newborn Twin Study Into Adolescence: 15 years later. Twin Research and Human Genetics, 16(1), 64-69.

Boivin, M., Brendgen, M., Vitaro, F., Dionne, G., Girard, A., Pérusse, D. & Tremblay, R. E. (2013). Strong genetic contribution to peer relationship difficulties at school entry: Findings from a Longitudinal Twin Study. Child Development, 84(3), 1098-1114.

Boivin, M., Brendgen, M., Vitaro, F., Forget-Dubois, N., Feng, B., Tremblay, R. E. & Dionne, G. (2013). Evidence of gene-environment correlation for peer difficulties: Disruptive behaviors predict early peer relation difficulties in school through genetic effects. Development and Psychopathology, 25(1), 79-92.

Brendgen, M., Girard, A., Vitaro, F., Dionne, G. & Boivin, G. (2013). Do peer group norms moderate the expression of genetic risk for aggression? Journal of Criminal Justice, 41(5), 324-330.

Brendgen, M., Vitaro, F., Barker, E. D., Girard, A., Dionne, G., Tremblay, R. E. & Boivin, M. (2013). Do other people's plights matter? A genetically informed twin study of the role of social context in the link between peer victimization and children's aggression and depression symptoms. Developmental Psychology, 49(2), 327-340.

Brendgen, M., Vitaro, F., Bukowski, W. M., Dionne, G., Tremblay, R. E. & Boivin, M. (2013). Can friends protect genetically vulnerable children from depression? Development and Psychopathology, 25(2), 277-289.

Dubois, L., Diasparra, M., Bedard, B., Kaprio, J., Fontaine-Bisson, B., Pérusse, D., Tremblay, R. & Boivin, M. (2013). Gene-environment contributions to energy and macronutrient intakes in 9-year-old children: Results from the Quebec Newborn Twin Study. Physiology & Behavior, 119, 30-37.

Dubois, L., Diasparra, M., Bédard, B., Kaprio, J., Fontaine-Bisson, B., Tremblay, R., Boivin, M. & Pérusse, D. (2013). Genetic and environmental influences on eating behaviors in 2.5- and 9-year-old children: A longitudinal twin study. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 10(134), 1-12.

Dussault, F., Vitaro, F., Brendgen, M., Boivin, M., Séguin, J. R. & Dionne, G. (2013). Chevauchement entre les trajectoires de jeu et les trajectoires de consommation de psychotropes au début de l'adolescence: une étude longitudinale génétiquement informative. Drogues, santé et société, 12(2), 20-46.

Touchette, É., Dionne, G., Forget-Dubois, N., Petit, D., Pérusse, D., Falissard, B., Tremblay, R. E., Boivin, M. & Montplaisir, J. Y. (2013). Genetic and environmental influences on daytime and nighttime sleep duration in early childhood. Pediatrics, 131(6), e1874-e1880.

Wettstein, A., Brendgen, M., Vitaro, F., Guimond, F., Forget-Dubois, N., Cantin, S., Dionne, G. & Boivin, M. (2013). The additive and interactive roles of aggression, prosocial behavior, and social preference in predicting resource control in young children. Journal of Aggression, Conflict, and Peace Research, 5(3), 179-196.

Caramaschi, D., Booij, L., Petitclerc, A., Boivin, M. & Tremblay, R. E. (2012). Genetic and environmental contributions to saliva testosterone levels in male and female infant twins. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 37(12), 1954-1959.

Guimond, F.-A., Brendgen, M., Forget-Dubois, N., Dionne, G., Vitaro, F., Tremblay, R. E. & Boivin, M. (2012). Associations of mother's and father's parenting practices with children's observed social reticence in a competitive situation: A monozygotic twin difference study. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 40(3), 391-402.

Vitaro, F., Boivin, M., Brendgen, M., Girard, A. & Dionne, G. (2012). Social experiences in kindergarten and academic achievement in grade 1: A monozygotic twin difference study. Journal of Educational Psychology, 104(2), 366-380.

Brendgen, M., Boivin, M., Dionne, G., Barker, E. D., Vitaro, F., Girard, A., Tremblay, R. E. & Pérusse, D. (2011). Gene-environment processes linking aggression, peer victimization, and the teacher-child relationship. Child Development, 82(6), 2021-2036.

Dionne, G., Touchette, É., Forget-Dubois, N., Petit, D., Tremblay, R. E., Montplaisir, J. & Boivin, M. (2011). Associations between sleep-wake consolidation and language development in early childhood: A longitudinal twin study. Sleep, 34(8), 987-995.

Ouellet-Morin, I., Dionne, G., Lupien, S. J., Muckle, G., Côté, S., Pérusse, D., Tremblay, R. E. & Boivin, M. (2011). Prenatal alcohol exposure and cortisol activity in 19-month-old toddlers: an investigation of the moderating effects of sex and testosterone. Psychopharmacology, 214(1), 297-307.

Ouellet-Morin, I., Odgers, C., Danese, A., Bowes, L., Shakoor, S., Papadopoulos, A., Caspi, A., Moffit, T. E. & Arseneault, L. (2011). Blunted cortisol responses to stress signal social and behavioral problems among maltreated/bullied 12-year-old children. Biological Psychiatry, 70(11), 1016-1023.

Petitclerc, A., Boivin, M., Dionne, G., Pérusse, D. & Tremblay, R. E. (2011). Genetic and environmental etiology of disregard for rules. Behavior Genetics, 41(2), 192-200.

Schachar, R. J., Forget-Dubois, N., Dionne, G., Boivin, M. & Robaey, P. (2011). Heritability of response inhibition in children. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 17(2), 238-247.

Vitaro, F., Brendgen, M., Boivin, M., Cantin, S., Dionne, G., Tremblay, R. E., Girard, A. & Pérusse, D. (2011). A monozygotic twin difference study of friends' aggression and children's adjustment problems. Child Development, 82(2), 617-632.

Renouf, A., Brendgen, M., Parent, S., Vitaro, F., Zelazo, P. D., Boivin, M., Dionne, G., Tremblay, R. E., Pérusse, D. & Séguin, J. R. (2010). Relations between theory of mind and indirect and physical aggression in kindergarten: Evidence of the moderating role of prosocial behaviors. Social Development, 19(3), 535-555.

Renouf, A., Brendgen, M., Séguin, J. R., Vitaro, F., Boivin, M., Dionne, G., Tremblay, R. E. & Pérusse, D. (2010). Interactive links between theory of mind, peer victimization, and reactive and proactive aggression. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 38(8), 1109-1123.

Brendgen, M., Vitaro, F., Boivin, M., Girard, A., Bukowski, W. M., Dionne, G., Tremblay, R. E. & Pérusse, D. (2009). Gene-environment interplay between peer rejection and depressive behavior in children. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 50(8), 1009-1017.

Forget-Dubois, N., Dionne, G., Lemelin, J.-P., Pérusse, D., Tremblay, R. E. & Boivin, M. (2009). Early child language mediates the relation between home environment and school readiness. Child Development, 80(3), 736-749.

Ouellet-Morin, I., Dionne, G., Pérusse, D., Lupien, S., Arseneault, L., Barr, R. G., Tremblay, R. E. & Boivin, M. (2009). Daytime cortisol secretion in 6-month-old twins: Genetic and environmental contributions as a function of early familial adversity. Biological Psychiatry, 65(5), 409-416.

Soussignan, R., Boivin, M., Girard, A., Pérusse, D., Liu, X. & Tremblay, R. E. (2009). Genetic and environmental etiology of emotional and social behaviors in 5-month-old infant twins: Influence of the social context. Infant Behavior & Development, 32(1), 1-9.

Brendgen, M., Boivin, M., Vitaro, F., Bukowski, W. M., Dionne, G., Tremblay, R. E. & Pérusse, D. (2008). Linkages between children's and their friends' social and physical aggression: Evidence for a gene-environment interaction? Child Development, 79(1), 13-29.

Brendgen, M., Boivin, M., Vitaro, F., Girard, A., Dionne, G. & Pérusse, D. (2008). Gene-environment interaction between peer victimization and child aggression. Development and Psychopathology, 20(2), 455-471.

Deneault, J., Ricard, M., Gouin Décarie, T., Morin, P., Quintal, G., Boivin, M., Tremblay, R. E. & Pérusse, D. (2008). False belief and emotion understanding in monozygotic twins, dizygotic twins and non-twin children. Cognition and Emotion, 22(4), 697-708.

Dionne, G., Boivin, M., Séguin, J. R., Pérusse, D. & Tremblay, R. E. (2008). Gestational diabetes hinders language development in offspring. Pediatrics, 122(5), e1073-e1079.

Leblanc, N., Boivin, M., Dionne, G., Brendgen, M., Vitaro, F., Tremblay, R. E. & Pérusse, D. (2008). The development of hyperactive-impulsive behaviors during the preschool years: The predictive validity of parental assessments. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 36(7), 977-987.

Nguyen, B. H., Pérusse, D., Paquet, J., Petit, D., Boivin, M., Tremblay, R. E. & Montplaisir, J. (2008). Sleep terrors in children: A prospective study of twins. Pediatrics, 122(6), 1164-1167.

Ouellet-Morin, I., Boivin, M., Dionne, G., Lupien, S. J., Arseneault, L., Barr, R. G., Pérusse, D. & Tremblay, R. E. (2008). Variations in heritability of cortisol reactivity to stress as a function of early familial adversity among 19-month-old twins [Erratum]. Archives of General Psychiatry, 65(5), 520-.

Ouellet-Morin, I., Boivin, M., Dionne, G., Lupien, S. J., Arseneault, L., Barr, R. G., Pérusse, D. & Tremblay, R. E. (2008). Variations in Heritability of Cortisol Reactivity to Stress as a Function of Early Familial Adversity Among 19-Month-Old Twins. Archives of General Psychiatry, 65(2), 211-218.

Ouellet-Morin, I., Wigg, K. G., Feng, Y., Dionne, G., Robaey, P., Brendgen, M., Vitaro, F., Simard, L., Schachar, R., Tremblay, R. E., Pérusse, D., Boivin, M. & Barr, C. L. (2008). Association of the dopamine transporter gene and ADHD symptoms in a Canadian population-based sample of same-age twins. American Journal of Medical Genetics Part B (Neuropsychiatric Genetics), 147B(8), 1442-1449.

Côté, C., Beauregard, M., Girard, A., Mensour, B., Mancini-Marïe, A. & Pérusse, D. (2007). Individual variation in neural correlates of sadness in children: A twin fMRI study. Human Brain Mapping, 28(6), 482-487.

Dubois, L., Girard, M., Girard, A., Tremblay, R. E., Boivin, M. & Pérusse, D. (2007). Genetic and environmental influences on body size in early childhood: A twin birth-cohort study. Twin Research and Human Genetics, 10(3), 479-485.

Forget-Dubois, N., Boivin, M., Dionne, G., Pierce, T., Tremblay, R. E. & Pérusse, D. (2007). A longitudinal twin study of the genetic and environmental etiology of maternal hostile-reactive behavior during infancy and toddlerhood. Infant Behavior & Development, 30(3), 453-465.

Lamarche, V., Brendgen, M., Boivin, M., Vitaro, F., Dionne, G. & Pérusse, D. (2007). Do friends' characteristics moderate the prospective links between peer victimization and reactive and proactive aggression? Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 35(4), 665-680.

Lemelin, J.-P., Boivin, M., Forget-Dubois, N., Dionne, G., Séguin, J. R., Brendgen, M., Vitaro, F., Tremblay, R. E. & Pérusse, D. (2007). The genetic-environmental etiology of cognitive school readiness and later academic achievement in early childhood. Child Development, 78(6), 1855-1869.

Plusquellec, P., François, N., Boivin, M., Pérusse, D. & Tremblay, R. E. (2007). Dominance among unfamiliar peers starts in infancy. Infant Mental Health Journal, 28(3), 324-343.

Robaey, P., Amre, D., Schachar, R. & Simard, L. (2007). French version of the Strengths and Weaknesses of ADHD Symptoms and Normal Behaviors (SWAN-F) questionnaire. Journal of the Canadian Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 16(2), 80-89.

Tremblay, R. E. (2007). The development of youth violence: An old story with new data. European Journal on Criminal Policy and Research, 13(3-4), 161-170.

van Lier, P. A. C., Boivin, M., Dionne, G., Vitaro, F., Brendgen, M., Koot, H., Tremblay, R. E. & Pérusse, D. (2007). Kindergarten children's genetic vulnerabilities interact with friends' aggression to promote children's own aggression. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 46(8), 1080-1087.

Brendgen, M., Vitaro, F., Boivin, M., Dionne, G. & Pérusse, D. (2006). Examining genetic and environmental effects on reactive versus proactive aggression. Developmental Psychology, 42(6), 1299-1312.

Lamarche, V., Brendgen, M., Boivin, M., Vitaro, F., Pérusse, D. & Dionne, G. (2006). Do friendships and sibling relationships provide protection against peer victimization in a similar way? Social Development, 15(3), 373-393.

Boivin, M., Pérusse, D., Dionne, G., Saysset, V., Zoccolillo, M., Tarabulsy, G. M., Tremblay, N. & Tremblay, R. E. (2005). The genetic-environmental etiology of parents' perceptions and self-assessed behaviours toward their 5-months-old infants in a large twin and singleton sample. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 46(6), 612-630.

Brendgen, M., Dionne, G., Girard, A., Boivin, M., Vitaro, F. & Pérusse, D. (2005). Examining genetic and environmental effects on social aggression: A study of 6-year-old twins. Child Development, 76(4), 930-946.

Dionne, G., Boivin, M., Tremblay, R. E., Laplante, D. & Pérusse, D. (2003). Physical aggression and expressive vocabulary in 19-month-old twins. Developmental Psychology, 39(2), 261-273.

Dubreuil, É., Ditto, B., Dionne, G., Pihl, R. O., Tremblay, R. E., Boivin, M. & Pérusse, D. (2003). Familiality of heart rate and cardiac-related autonomic activity in five-month-old twins: The Quebec Newborn Twins Study. Psychophysiology, 40(6), 849-862.

Forget-Dubois, N., Pérusse, D., Turecki, G., Girard, A., Billette, J.-M., Rouleau, G. A., Boivin, M., Malo, J. & Tremblay, R. E. (2003). Diagnosing zygosity in infant twins: Physical similarity, genotyping, and chorionicity. Twin Research, 6(6), 479-485.

Laplante, D., Pérusse, D., Boulerice, B., Malo, J., Boivin, M. & Tremblay, R. E. (2001). Infant visual habituation and parental psychological distress. Infant Mental Health Journal, 22(4), 479-496.

 Non-peer-reviewed articles

Ouellet-Morin, I. (2011). Pareil, pas pareil! Comment les études de jumeaux peuvent nous aider à mieux comprendre le stress humain. Magazine Mammouth(9), 4-5.

Brendgen, M. (2006). Mean girls (and boys): Social aggressiveness is mainly determined by children’s environment. Pediatrics for Parents, 22(07), 3-4.

Huijbregts, S. C. J., Stevenson, J., Boivin, M., Séguin, J. R. & Tremblay, R. E. (2005). Maternal smoking during pregnancy and children's physical aggression: Results of a twin study [Abstract]. Pediatric Research, 58(5), 1059-1060.

 Other achievement

Boivin, M., Lemelin, J.-P., Vitaro, F., Pérusse, D., Bukowski, W. M., Séguin, J. R. & Tremblay, R. E. (2005). Les déterminants de l’adaptation sociale et scolaire lors de l’entrée en milieu scolaire : une étude de jumeaux. In Santé Canada. Rapport de recherche présenté à Santé Canada dans le cadre du Programme national de recherche et de développement en matière de santé (PNRDS). Ottawa, ON.